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features of autoimmune disease. The second edition of Autoimmunity: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. Free Preview cover. ©
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I enjoy ice skating. Favorite song song. I love camping and mountain biking. My family owns the best pastry shop in Naples. I am a professional guitar player.

Mouse models of multiple sclerosis

Favorite song: "Across the Universe" , The Beatles. I love gummy bears. I ice skate every year. One of my all-time favorite mantras.

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Favorite song. I play both Indian and Western violin. I have accidentally climbed a mountain as in, kept walking without realizing I was climbing a mountain. Artwork I like: Simon Beck, mathematical snow art. I was a muscle guy but like fat more. I really like delicious food without perfect cooking skills.

I love hiking and music but lack strong body and nice voice. My recent liked song. I once bumped into the UN secretary general randomly in the street. I can solve a rubics cube in 8 seconds.

I am a big fan of pizza, especially because my family owns a small pizzeria business. I use to have an afro when I was younger. A book that inspires me. If I am not working, I am traveling. I have a Qipao collection.

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One of my favorite food is donkey meat. Favorite painting: The Scream ,, by Edvard Munch. Prior to discovering immunology, I aspired to be a deep sea diver a la Jacques Cousteau.

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I lived with an 86 year old roommate during my time in New York City. An inspiration. I have run marathons in distance by Jan, I like cooking as much as doing experiments. I like eating as much as analyzing experimental data. A song recently liked. View Larger Map. Toggle navigation. Image courtesy of Brinda Vijaykumar and Evgeny Kiner. Mice were injected i. Mice were monitored daily for clinical signs of EAE, and disease severity was scored. The data presented represent three pooled independent experiments.

Mice were monitored daily for clinical signs of EAE and disease severity was scored. The experiment was repeated several times with similar results; a representative experiment is shown. Current thinking suggests that immature DC are required for immunization with fusion mAbs to be able to protect against disease. The rapid progressive paralysis exhibited by these animals was consistent with EAE as the cause of death.

EAE was induced in transfer recipients the next day. Another potential mechanism for induction of immunological tolerance is the deletion or anergy of pathogenic T cells. Consistent with the slight EAE amelioration observed in this treatment group, pre-administration of the ISO-PLP — mAb resulted in somewhat decreased numbers of Th cells secreting cytokines, as compared to control mice that were not preimmunized Fig.

Ten days later, mice were immunized with PLP — and injected i. Wells stimulated with PHA and unstimulated wells were used as controls. PHA and unstimulated wells were used as controls. Notably, consistent with the slight disease amelioration seen in Fig. As expected Kretschmer et al. This proliferation was followed by efficient deletion of essentially all cells by day 14 after adoptive transfer Fig. In both, a cases antigen-specific Thy1.

These cells did not undergo proliferation in the absence of cognate antigen, but maintained Foxp3 and CD25 expression Fig. This increase was much less notable in other peripheral lymphoid tissues, such as mesenteric or subcutaneous lymph nodes. In untreated mice, congenic marker positive Treg cells that can be tracked in peripheral lymphoid tissues maintain Foxp3 and CD25 expression but do not undergo proliferation day 6 after injection.

Studies describe multiple methods of administering antigens to induce tolerogenic mechanisms Miller et al. This problem can be circumvented by direct targeting of minute amounts of antigens to immature DC in vivo , allowing the antigen to be delivered efficiently and raising the probability of a tolerogenic response, while lowering the probability of adverse reactions. To assess how this phenotype may come about, we tracked antigen-specific Thy1. In contrast, on day 14, significant populations of Thy1.

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  • Thus, both fusion mAbs are able to induce Treg expansion, suggesting that the low levels of Treg induction in the Thy1. Yamazaki et al. These mice developed severe paralysis compared to controls that were only administered PLP — This clearly suggests that targeting immature DC is necessary for programming tolerogenic DC and is consistent with current thinking about DC biology Lutz, Immature DCs do not express co-stimulatory markers and antigen presentation by these cells will tolerize T cells and induce anergy. Our study contains several technical caveats that need to be considered when interpreting the results.

    Chief among them is differences in efficiency of EAE induction between different animals.

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    This could be a result of the variation in the reagents that were used for disease induction, or even the health and prior environmental exposure of different mouse cohorts used. It is important to note that while there were differences between induction efficiency between experiments, within each individual experiment, the protective effect of the fusion mAb was significant.

    Another technical caveat is the slight amelioration of EAE observed as a result of pre-treatment with isotype controls. This effect has been documented previously Stern et al. While the mechanism of this action is unclear, it might be due to cross-reactivity between the isotype antibodies and immature DC, or phagocytosis and presentation of antigen by macrophages or other APC. The isotype-only controls are therefore a more stringent control for EAE amelioration than untreated mice. Additionally, it is worthwhile to note the lack of available means to identify PLP — specific T cells, necessitating a change of antigen to explore the mechanism of the fusion mAb.

    Therefore, it appears that HA-specific T cells are likely to be a good alternative model for exploring the effect of fusion antibodies, if desired transgenic animals are unavailable. Further analysis of the response of the immune system to different fusion mAbs can give us insight into the function of DC and the mechanisms of tolerance induction. Nat Immunol. J Exp Med. Presentation of the self antigen myelin basic protein by dendritic cells leads to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    J Immunol.


    Differential antigen processing by dendritic cell subsets in vivo. Acute in vivo exposure to interferon-gamma enables resident brain dendritic cells to become effective antigen presenting cells. Dendritic cells permit immune invasion of the CNS in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Nat Med. Early degenerative changes in transgenic mice expressing mutant huntingtin involve dendritic abnormalities but no impairment of mitochondrial energy production. Exp Neurol. Regulatory T cells dynamically control the primary immune response to foreign antigen.